Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Desirable Intercultural Competences Necessary for Working in Multicultural Classrooms
Keywords:teacher, intercultural competencies, multicultural classromms, diversity
Teachers’ intercultural competence is a key factor in the consistent implementation of intercultural principles in teaching practice. The study conducted among primary school teachers in North Macedonia aimed to examine the effect of sociocultural factors on the perception of desirable intercultural competencies for working in multicultural classrooms. 217 primary school teachers from multiethnic regions in North Macedonia participated in the study. The Scale for Assessing Desirable Intercultural Competences (SADIC) was used to collect data. Descriptive statistical procedures were employed in data processing to determine descriptive characteristics, and the comparison of respondents’ attitudes was conducted using the t-test and ANOVA. Additionally, a post hoc test (Scheffe’s test) was performed to determine the significance of the differences. The results showed a significant effect of sociocultural factors on the perception of desirable intercultural competencies. These perceptions range from teamwork skills to motivation for continuous learning and education, non-violent conflict resolution skills, a critical approach to societal events, openness to different cultures, and the ability to see problems from the perspective of culturally different students. This research forms a potential basis for considering the approach to designing a school that is open to diversity.
Adili, B. (2022). Intercultural Competencies of The Primary School Teacher [Интеркултурните компетенции на наставникот во основното училиште] (Doctoral dissertation, University Goce Delcev-Stip).
Adili, B., Petrovska, S., & Xhambazi, G. (2022). Gender and Level of Teachers’ Knowledge on Key Features of Intercultural Education. Филко/Filko, 13-21. https://js.ugd.edu.mk/index.php/fe/article/download/5005/4346
Adili, B., Petrovska, S., & Xhambazi, G. (2022). Integrating intercultural education in the primary school curriculum. Pedagogika-Pedagogy, 2022, 94(8), 1032-1043. https://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/30370/1/Pedagogy_8_22_Bujar%20Adili.pdf
Adili, B., & Xhambazi, G. (2021). Gender and intercultural sensitivity: analysis of intercultural sensitivity among primary school teachers in North Macedonia. Book of, 69.
Anderson, P. H., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R. J., & Hubbard, A. C. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4), 457-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.10.004
Banks, J. A., & McGee Banks, C. A. (2010). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. John Wiley & Sons.
Bedeković, V. (2012). Poznavanje temeljnih vrijednosti interkulturalizma u kontekstu provedbe interkulturalnog odgoja i obrazovanja. Školski vjesnik 61(3): 305-324. https://hrcak.srce.hr/clanak/129321
Bedeković, V. (2015). Interkulturalna kompetentnost pedagoga u odgoju i obrazovanju za interkulturalne odnose. Školski vjesnik: časopis za pedagogijsku teoriju i praksu, 64(1), 7-24. https://hrcak.srce.hr/clanak/212240
Bennett, M. J. (2008). Transformative training: Designing programs for culture learning. In M. J. Bennett (Ed.), The Sage encyclopedia of intercultural competence (pp. 403-408). Sage Publications.
Bennett, M. J. (1998). Intercultural communication: A current perspective. Basic concepts of intercultural communication: Selected readings, 1, 1-34.
Bennet, A., & Bennet, D. (2004). Organizational survival in the new world. Routledge.
Byram, M. (1997). ‘Cultural awareness’ as vocabulary learning. Language learning journal, 16(1), 51-57. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571739785200291
Byram, M. (2021). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence: Revisited. Bristol, Blue Ridge Summit: Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781800410251
Caingcoy, M., Lorenzo, V., Ramirez, I., Libertad, C., Pabiona Jr., R., & Mier, R. (2022). Assessing Practice Teachers’ Culturally Responsive Teaching: The Role of Gender and Degree Programs in Competence Development. IAFOR Journal of Cultural Studies, 7(1). 21-35. https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4229303
Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2000). The development and validation of the intercultural communication sensitivity scale. Human Communication, 3(1), 1-15. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED447525
Chen, G. M., & Starosta, W. J. (2018). Intercultural competence: A synthesis. Routledge.
Cushner, K. (2007). The Role of Experience in the Making of Internationally-Minded Teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(1), 27–39. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23478850
Deardoff, D. K. (2009). The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence. Thousand Oaks. CA: Sage
Deardorff, D. K. (2006). Identification and assessment of intercultural competence as a student outcome of internationalization. Journal of Studies in International Education, 10(3), 241-266. https://doi.org/10.1177/1028315306287002
DeJaeghere, J. G., & Cao, Y. (2009). Developing US teachers’ intercultural competence: Does professional development matter?. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(5), 437-447. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.06.004
Fantini, A. E. (2009). Assessing intercultural competence: Issues and tools. In D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 456- 476). Sage Publications.
Gay, G. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. Teachers College Press.
Green, Z. A. (2019). Emotionalized Learning Experiences: Inspiring Students in Pakistan to Reinvent Themselves to Nurture Social Competence. Journal of College Student Development 60(3), 337-360. doi:10.1353/csd.2019.0030.
Golub, A. Š. (2014). Effects of German language teacher professional development on pupils’ learning outcomes in intercultural competence. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal, 4(4), 75-98. https://doi.org/10.26529/cepsj.186
Hammer, M. R., Bennett, M. J., & Wiseman, R. (2003). Measuring intercultural sensitivity: The Intercultural Development Inventory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 27(4), 421-443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767(03)00032-4
Jund, A. (2010). Toward a Pedagogy of Intercultural Understanding in Teaching English for Academic Purposes. Tesl-Ej, 14(1), n1. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/document?repid=rep1&type=pdf&doi=a179b52ac7f1e102942df826c92358fc7d625b56
Liu, M. (2022). Effects of Learner Variables on Chinese Bilingual Undergraduates’ Intercultural Sensitivity and Effectiveness. Education Sciences, 12(12), 873. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12120873
Liu, Y. (2022). Exploring the intercultural competence of international teachers in Chinese universities: A case study. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 51(1), 1-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2022.100371
Magos, K., & Simopoulos, G. (2009). ‘Do you know Naomi?’: researching the intercultural competence of teachers who teach Greek as a second language in immigrant classes. Intercultural education, 20(3), 255-265. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675980903138616
Mrnjaus, K., & Rončević, N. (2012). Interkulturalna osjetljivost i interkulturalne kompetencije budućih pedagoga, odgajatelja, učitelja i nastavnika - studenata Sveučilišta u Rijeci. In B. Hrvatić & A. Klapan (Eds.), Pedagogija i kultura: teorijsko metodološka određenja pedagogijske znanosti (pp. 314-321). Zagreb: Hrvatsko pedagogijsko društvo.
Olson, C. L., & Kroeger, K. R. (2001). Global Competency and Intercultural Sensitivity. Journal of Studies in International Education, 5, 116-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/102831530152003
Okoye-Johnson, O. (2011). Does multicultural education improve students’ racial attitudes? Implications for closing the achievement gap. Journal of Black Studies, 42(8), 1252-1274. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021934711408901
Penbek, Ş., Yurdakul Şahin, D., & Cerit, A. G. (2012). Intercultural communication competence: A study about the intercultural sensitivity of university students based on their education and international experiences. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 11(2), 232-252. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJLSM.2012.045425
Petrovska, S., & Adili, B. (2020). The intercultural sensitivity of the primary school teachers in the Republic of North Macedonia. Воспитание/Vospitanie-Journal of Educational Sciences, Theory and Practice, 11(15), 20-30. https://js.ugd.edu.mk/index.php/vospitanie/article/view/3605
Piršl, E. (2011). Odgoj i obrazovanje za interkulturalnu kompetenciju. Pedagogijska istraživanja 8 (1): 53-70. https://epale.ec.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ephrv.pdf
Piršl, E., Diković, M., & Pokrajac-Bulian, A. (2009). Intercultural Competence and Sensitivity from Students Viewpoint. In: Popov, N.,Wolhuter, Ch., Leutwyler, B., Mihova, M., Ogunleye, J. (Ed.) Comparative Education and Teacher Training, Education Policy, School Leadership and Social Inclusion Vol. 8 (pp 363-368)
Polat, S., & Ogay Barka, T. (2014). Preservice Teachers' Intercultural Competence: A Comparative Study of Teachers in Switzerland and Turkey. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 54, 19-38. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1057212
Popova-Koskarova, R. (2015). Developing Interethnic and Intercultural Competencies. Academicus International Scientific Journal, 6(12), 260-269. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=289516
Rissanen, I., Kuusisto, E., & Kuusisto, A. (2016). Developing teachers' intercultural sensitivity: Case study on a pilot course in Finnish teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 59, 446-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2016.07.018
Sivevska, D. (2008). Public and cultural activity and multicultural education. http://eprints.ugd.edu.mk/7309/2/Ohrid%202008.pdf
Sleeter, C. E. (2011). Un-standardizing curriculum: Multicultural teaching in the standards-based classroom. Teachers College Press.
Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2007). The culturally responsive teacher. Educational Leadership, 64(6), 28. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ766361
Wiseman, R. L. (1995). Intercultural Communication Theory. SAGE Publications.
Zirkel, S. (2008). The influence of multicultural educational practices on student outcomes and intergroup relations. Teachers College Record, 110(6), 1147- 1181. https://doi.org/10.1177/016146810811000605
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Bujar Adili, Makfirete Ameti, Arbresha Zenki-Dalipi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.